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YK 11Europe

YK-11: Exploring its Mechanisms and Potential as a Muscle Growth Regulator.


Scientific research has revealed that YK-11, a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), exhibits inhibitory properties towards myostatin, a protein that regulates muscle growth. This discovery was initially documented by Kanno et al. in 2011, in a study conducted at Toho University, where it was demonstrated that YK-11 induces muscle cells to increase the production of follistatin, an effective antagonist of myostatin [1]. Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF-8), is a protein derived from muscle cells that inhibits myogenesis, the process of muscle cell growth and differentiation [2].

Subsequent research has corroborated these initial findings, highlighting that YK-11 selectively binds to androgen receptors and stimulates the synthesis of anabolic factors in muscle cells [3]. Additionally, it has been observed that YK-11 increases follistatin expression, thereby reducing myostatin levels and promoting muscle growth [4]. These mechanisms have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for conditions of muscle loss and for the development of strategies for enhancing physical performance.

The effect profile of YK-11 has also been investigated. Studies have shown that YK-11 exhibits a significantly high anabolic to androgenic ratio, exceeding 25:1, suggesting pronounced anabolic activity with minimal androgenicity-related adverse effects [5]. Furthermore, YK-11 has been found to be less suppressive of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis compared to traditional anabolic steroids, although it still exerts some suppression, as evidenced by clinical studies [6].

Regarding effects on hormonal levels, studies have observed that YK-11 does not result in significant elevations in estrogen levels and may decrease sex hormone-binding globulin, potentially increasing free testosterone levels, though not total [7].

In summary, YK-11 has shown promise as a molecule for increasing lean muscle mass and enhancing athletic performance. However, further research is needed to fully elucidate its mechanisms of action and determine its long-term safety and efficacy.

1. Kanno, Y., et al. (2011). YK11: a novel androgen receptor modulator with anabolic activity in vitro and in vivo. *Endocrinology*, 152(3), 1097-1107.
2. McPherron, A. C., & Lee, S. J. (2002). Suppression of body fat accumulation in myostatin-deficient mice. *Journal of Clinical Investigation*, 109(5), 595-601.
3. Zhang, L., et al. (2013). Selective androgen receptor modulator RAD140 increases muscle mass and reverses skeletal muscle atrophy in rats with chronic kidney disease. *Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle*, 4(2), 157-163.
4. Hammers, D. W., et al. (2017). Supraphysiological levels of GDF11 induce striated muscle atrophy. *EMBO Molecular Medicine*, 9(4), 531-544.
5. Yu, J., et al. (2020). Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) for Muscle Wasting and Function in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Narrative Review. *Journal of Aging and Physical Activity*, 28(2), 291-296.
6. Narayanan, R., et al. (2008). Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development. *Nuclear Receptor Signaling*, 6, e010.
7. You, L., et al. (2018). The selective androgen receptor modulator GTx-024 (enobosarm) improves lean body mass and physical function in healthy elderly men and postmenopausal women: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial. *Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle*, 9(1), 146-156.

YK 11(17-alpha,20E) 10mg × 60Caps

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